Benefits of Using a VoIP Telephone

Most of you would have heard about VoIP and for those who haven’t it’s never too late. VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol and is revolutionizing the telephone industry by combining the benefits of traditional analog telephones and modern day internet. VoIP telephone works by converting the analog signals into digital signal so that you get superb audio quality.

Companies now offer VoIP services all over the world at very reasonable rates. Although, it is very difficult to make people forget about traditional landline phones and make them use VoIP, but it comes with a full bag of benefits which make it very difficult to ignore. Slowly but steadily VoIP is catching up popularity among masses and classes both. Some of the main benefits of VoIP telephone over traditional phones are:

• The call rate for long distance calls is very less in VoIP thus making the landline phones not so useful.

• As compared to the pulse rate service provided by landline phone companies most VoIP service providers offer packages wherein you get unlimited talk time at a flat rate. So you don’t have to keep track of the watch while making an international call. This facility is very useful if your family lives in some other country and you are in other country for some purpose. You can interact with your family and friends for as long as you want.

• Use of VoIP for conference calling and multi way calling is relatively easy. Unlike traditional phones which only offer 3 way calling you can add as many people to your conversation as you want in VoIP. Also the facility of conference calling makes it a perfect tool for holding telephonic seminars, conferences and telephonic interviews.

• Most VoIP service providers have the option of combined plans wherein you pay for your broadband usage and VoIP usage together. Hence you can save good amount of money by using VoIP over traditional phones.

• Use of VoIP telephone will substantially cut down on your telephone bills. Even the most costly VoIP provider is very cheap when compared with traditional landline companies. Plus the quality you get is unmatchable as it is completely digital and is very likely to be affected by additional factors unlike traditional landline which used wires for   transmission  so if anything happens to the wire your service gets hampered.

• Many features for which you pay extra on your landline come free with VoIP telephone.

These along with other features make VoIP technology very hard to resist and a good alternative for traditional landline phones.

Thomas Nagel And His Article On Death

Thomas Nagel begins his collection of essays with a most intriguing discussion about death. Death being one of the most obviously important subjects of contemplation, Nagel takes an interesting approach as he tries to define the truth as to whether death is, or is not, a harm for that individual. Nagel does a brilliant job in attacking this issue from all sides and viewpoints, and it only makes sense that he does it this way in order to make his own observations more credible.

He begins by looking at the very common views of death that are held by most people in the world, and tells us that he will talk of death as the “unequivocal and permanent end to our existence” and look directly at the nature of death itself (1). The first view that Nagel decides to discuss is the view that death is bad for us because it deprives us of more life. Most people are in the view that life is good; even though some experiences in life can be bad, and sometimes tragic, the nature of life itself is a very positive state. Nagel also adds that when the experiences of life are put aside, this state is still positive, and not simply “neutral” (2).

Nagel goes further to point out some important observations about the value of life. Mere “organic survival” cannot be said to be a component of value (2). Nagel gives the example of death and being in a coma before dying. Both of these situations would be equally bad situations. Another observation is that “like most goods” the value can become greater with time (2).

Looking now at what is bad about death instead of what is good about life, Nagel presents some obvious thoughts regarding this point. Life is good because we have the conscious ability to experience and appreciate all that life has to offer. So death is bad because it deprives us of these experiences, not because the actual state of death is bad for us.

The next point that Nagel makes is that there are certain indications that show how people do not object to death simply because it “involves long periods of nonexistence” (3). It is said that people would not look at the temporary “suspension” of life as a terrible misfortune, because the fact that it is temporary tells us that this will ultimately bring the state back to that of conscious life. Also, we do not look at the state being before we are born as a misfortune, or deprivation of life, because that life has not yet begun and, (as Nagel states later), he refutes the possible argument that the person could have been born earlier and had more life, with the fact that if that person was born substantially earlier, he would cease to be that person, but instead someone else entirely.

Nagel discusses next three problems. The first is a view that there are no evils that are not rooted in a person consciously “minding” those evils. Nagel puts this view in to easier terms by saying that this is the same as saying “what you don’t know can’t hurt you” (4). There are several examples that can illustrate this theory. People who think this way would say that it is not a harm for a person to be ridiculed behind his back, if he doesn’t know about it. If he doesn’t experience the evil, it is not bad for him. Nagel thinks this view is wrong. The natural discovery here is that it is bad to be betrayed, this is what makes the whole situation unfortunate; not because the discovery of this betrayal makes us unhappy.

The second problem is that which has to do with who the subject of harm caused by death is, and when exactly this occurs. Harm can be experienced by a person before death, nothing can be experienced after death, so when is death itself experienced as a harm? The third problem deals with posthumous and prenatal existence.

Contemplating the good or bad aspects of death, Nagel observes that we must look at the possible circumstances surrounding a death, and the pertinent history of the person who dies. This is important because we miss a lot that is important to the argument if what we take into consideration is exclusively the state of the person at the moment of death. Nagel gives an example of a very intelligent man sustaining an injury that causes him to regress to the mental capacity of an infant. His needs can be fulfilled like those of an infant and be kept happy as long as simple needs are met. His family and friends would look at this as a terrible misfortune, even though the man himself is not aware of his loss. This situation is unfortunate because of the deprivation of what might have been had he not been injured in this way. He could have gone on to accomplish great things for the world and his family, and live out his life through old age as an accomplished and acclaimed individual. This would have lead him to great happiness, but it can be observed that this same man in a state of mental capacity to match that of a child is also happy, but Nagel agrees that what happened to this man is a tragedy because of the terrible loss of the life the intelligent man could have led. This situation can relate to death in this way of thinking about deprivation. Death is bad because it robs you of what could have been.

After making these observations, Nagel states that “This case should convince us that it is arbitrary to restrict the goods and evils that can befall a man to non-relational properties ascribable to him at particular times” (6). There are endless circumstances and happenings going on that affect a person’s fortune or misfortune. Many of these never coincide directly to the person’s life. We must consider that there is no way to pinpoint the exact position of a misfortune in a person’s life, nor a way to define the origin. People have dreams and goals in life that may or may not be fulfilled. There is no way to find all of the circumstances and possibilities that go into whether or not these hopes and dreams are eventually fulfilled, but Nagel tells us that we must simply accept that “If death is an evil, it must be accounted for in these terms, and the impossibility of locating it within life should not trouble us” (7).

There are some who view the time before birth and the time after death as the same. We exist in neither, though Nagel argues that there is a difference. This whole essay has expressed exactly his view that though we do not exist in either case, death deprives us of time that we could have been living our lives.

Nagel makes an interesting observation about whether we can assign as a misfortune an event or aspect of life which is normal to all humans in general. We all know that we all will die and that the maximum amount of life is somewhere around 100 years. So is it still plausible to say this is a misfortune? He also gives the example of moles, which are blind. It is not a misfortune for a mole to be blind because they are all blind, and they will never know sight and be able to appreciate it. But Nagel also presents the example of a situation in which everyone goes through six months of pain and anguish before dying. Everyone knows that this is going to happen, but does that make the event any less of an event to dread and fear?

We are brought into this world and brought up with aspects of our lives that we appreciate. The deprivation of these things that we learn to appreciate is a misfortune, because we have learned to live with these privileges. It is unfathomable for a human being to grasp the concept of a finite life, in the truest meaning of understanding. We do not think of our lives right now as a set out plan or a finite sequence of events. We do not live day to day thinking of what we should do according to how much time we have left. Our lives are essentially an open-ended sequence of good and bad circumstances and possibilities. Death is the abrupt interruption of this sequence that we cannot help but be in the mindset will never end. This is how death is a deprivation, and ultimately, a bad thing for a person.

In conclusion, Nagel offers a good argument in his essay on death about death itself being a harm. Whether a person believes in the immortal life or not, it must still be considered that dying deprives you of the goods and experiences of life. This view seems unavoidable. A person who dies at age 92 has lived a full life to the best of his ability and has experienced more than someone who dies at age 32. The person dying at age 32 had many things that he wished to accomplish and experience in his life, and since the event of death has taken away all possibility of any of these goals coming to pass, and undermines all the work that he has put forth up to that point in pursuit of his goals, death is a terrible tragedy for him.

Work Cited

Nagel, Thomas. Mortal Questions. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979.

The Club of Rome and Education

The Club of Rome:

Eugenics is a lot like all the other arrows in the quiver of the social engineer. Francis Fukayama’s book The End of History and The Last Man is a powerful reminder of how much ‘absolute religions’ are mere tool for the elite, and I think everyone should read what he bluntly states. In order to design or engineer a quality environment we must have ethics or principles that allow decisions to be made that benefit all life on earth rather than a few elites who operate to benefit their cronies and share a little with their paladins in some Physiocratic ‘trickle down’ approach to the governance and resources or opportunities that humanity has the duty to fulfill according to some over-riding purpose. That purpose might be divine but it must make sense and be commonly apprehended or shared. I happen to think there is an intelligence and collective conscious design. I also think we are part of this design and can make mincemeat or a thorough botchery of it. We are individually responsible for being like gods as Jesus (John 10:34) and all so many adepts have made eloquently apparent. We are part of God and should help she/he/it achieve what is RIGHT.

Is that an elitist attitude? Maybe it is at some point, because I am not one who caters to the destruction of the human gene pool or one who thinks anyone deserves a free ride at the heart of it. That is not to suggest that I think everyone should not be enabled and encouraged far more than has been done in the WASP world of history in the last two millennia and more. I probably share more with Thomas Paine and his New World Order types than I share with bleeding heart naïve do-gooders who seek something they have not fully examined. I think helping babies exist and take food from the mouths of others in India was not a godly or good thing, for example. The Club of Rome and I share a great deal in terms of how we view the opportunities and problems that our leaders must address. Here is a good point they make.

“Systems of education are less and less adapted to the new issues, to the new emerging global society we are presently involved in. New priorities force us to redefine the role of education, which should be conceived as a permanent learning process.   Transmission  of knowledge is no longer sufficient, and new objectives such as developing one’s own potential and creativity, or the capacity of adaptation to change are becoming essential in a rapidly changing world.

The Club of Rome considers that education is both part of the global problematique and also an essential tool to become an effective actor in control of one’s own life and within society. If there are “Limits to Growth”, there are “No Limits to Learning” (titles of two Reports to the Club of Rome).” (1)

Their recommendations to limit population growth can be seen from many points of view but their prognostications of doom and gloom have not considered various technologies which continue to make it possible that the outcomes their reports have predicted will occur. In fact there are technologies I think they are not even aware of if you go by what they say on their web site. There is no reason to limit population growth if we enable all people to fulfull their potential. However, that certainly is not being done and the number of people who know their soulful potential to any real extent if less than one per cent.

Electrolyte Replenishment After Exercise

Everyone knows that we should stay well hydrated during exercise. When we exercise our body temperature elevates. Our body responds by sweating, this is its way of cooling down. How much we sweat depends of the weather, the intensity of the workout, and even the clothing we are wearing. No matter how much we sweat we lose water and electrolytes when we sweat. This fluid loss is called dehydration. Severe dehydration could seriously impact our health.

Our bodies maintain a very delicate balance of various chemicals to survive. Water is an important component in this balance. In fact, our bodies contain a high percentage of water. Our brain is 70% water as are our muscles. Even our bones contain water. Water helps release toxins from our muscles, kidneys, and liver. So we definitely need to drink water. However, when we sweat we do not just lose water. We also lose electrolytes. Water does not contain electrolytes.

Electrolytes are ions of certain minerals. Ions are positively or negatively charged atoms or molecules. The ions or electrolytes in our bodies help regulate certain metabolic functions. For instance, the negative and positive charges of electrolytes are necessary for the electrical stimulation that contracts our muscles, including our heart. Electrolytes also control the flow of water molecules to the cells. And just like with water, maintaining our electrolyte levels, is critical to our health.

The mineral ions that make up electrolytes include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, hydrogen phosphate and hydrogen carbonate.

SODIUM

  • Assists with electrical impulses in the body allowing brain function and muscle contraction.
  • Affects urine production.
  • Helps maintain proper acid-base balance in the body.
  • Aids in maintaining blood pressure.

POTASSIUM

  • Important in the production of electrical impulses that contract muscles and in brain function.
  • Helps regulate fluids in the cells.
  • Aids in the   transmission  of nerve impulses.
  • Regulates the heartbeat.
  • Aids in digestion.
  • One study links potassium to bone health.

CALCIUM

  • Builds and maintains bones.
  • Part of the necessary electrolytes for nerve impulses and muscle contraction.

MAGNESIUM

  • Involved with the relaxation of the muscles that surround the bronchial tubes.
  • Assists in muscle contraction.
  • Helps activate the neurons in the brain.
  • Assists with enzyme activities.
  • Involved in the synthesis of protein.

CHLORIDE

  • Helps regulate balance of body fluids.
  • Aids in maintaining blood pressure

HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE

  • Assists in controlling the acidity level of the blood.
  • Is instrumental in calcium being deposited in the bones.

HYDROGEN CARBONATE

  • Contributive in maintaining the normal levels of acidity in the fluids of the body, in particular the blood
  • Helps keep the acid-base balance in the body.

Electrolyte replenishment drinks have been shown to provide certain benefits that water alone cannot. One study showed that runners who had consumed a carbohydrate electrolyte sports drink had a higher aerobic capacity than those of the placebo group. In another study, this one measuring the athletes speed, the group that had consumed the sports drink posted faster times than the placebo group. Electrolyte replenishment drinks help retain fluid and use it more efficiently during exercise. Those which include carbohydrates help stave off muscle fatigue.

One thing to beware of is that some sports drinks have a very high sugar content. There are sports drinks with upwards of 70 grams of sugar per serving and some with as little as 12. Despite this the American College of Sports Medicine have found that sports drinks are beneficial in providing energy to muscles, maintaining blood sugar levels, and preventing dehydration, making electrolyte replacement absolutely vital! So make sure to drink plenty of water in your daily life and after you exercise, think of having an electrolyte replenishment drink.

Choosing the Right Dental Assistant School

Which School Should You Enroll Yourself?

The dental assistant school you choose to enroll in is one necessary factor in your success as an assistant. You must choose among these schools the one approved and accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association (ADA). Certification for dental assistant is only granted by the Dental Assisting National Board (DANB) to those who graduated from accredited schools. Such certification is very important as some states require license of assistants in allowing them to work in the field. Most of the employers also have higher regards on those who graduated from accredited programs because they are assured that the assistants they hire would be competent enough and skillful.

Enrollment Prerequisites

Just like other degree programs or courses, a high school diploma or an equivalent is usually required in enrolling to school. Some schools aside from the high school diploma or its equivalent, also requires some subjects or courses in science (biology and chemistry in particular), health, computer and office or management.

Classes and Programs

There are programs available online. However, you must make it sure that its mother school is accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the ADA. Aside from the accreditation you must also check if there is a balance between lecture classes and laboratory or hands-on trainings. Practical experiences must always be included in the program. Usually, the assistant programs consist classes on dental anatomy and basic anatomy, dental procedures and theory, nutrition and preventive dentistry, disease   transmission  and pathology, pharmacology and radiology, names of instruments and use of equipment, communication and patient interaction, medical office administration and record keeping.

Evaluating School for Assistants

The student aspiring to be an assistant must consider if the school provides the appropriate training for the different roles of an assistant. The program of the school must provide comprehensive trainings regarding the important roles of a dental assistant. Aside from the trainings the students must also give proper education and preparation for the students for the Dental Assisting National Board’s CDA examination. Reviews must be conducted by the school among their students. Also, the school’s location is very important to consider. The student must have initially planned which state he or she would like to work in so that the standards of the school meet the state’s standards for dental assistants allowed to work in the field. The student-teacher ratio must also be considered. Proper supervisions must be given to each student not just during laboratory or practical experiences but also during the classes on theories. Furthermore, check whether financial aids are available such as student loans, scholarships and grants. The tuition fees for dental courses in different schools are to be noted. Check also the success of the graduates of the school. Take note of how many were granted the certification of being an assistant and how many among those who went into internships got jobs compared to the number of graduates. The percentage has to be relatively high to be able to say that the said dental assistant school will provide you the proper training and lead you to excellence and success in the field.

Starter Clicks But Engine Does Not Turn Over – Tech in Trunk?

If the car’s starter clicks and the engine does not turn over, this could be caused by several things. The most common cause of clicking when the car is being started is a low battery. Most people would assume that the starter is bad if it only clicks, but low-voltage can cause the starter to make this sound.

The battery is the heart of the starting and electrical system. If the battery has been drained or has a weak cell, this can cause the starter to only click. Many times the battery could just been drained due to a door left slightly open, making the dome light stay on. Other times a vanity light or a phone charger could be left on. During my time as a master auto technician, I’ve had a trustworthy co-worker close me up in the trunk so I could make sure the trunk light went off when the trunk was closed!

In order to test the battery it must have a good charge. If the battery is not charged completely the tester will indicate that it needs to be charged before testing can proceed. The first step when checking the starter and electrical system is to make sure the battery is in good condition. Most parts stores will check batteries for free. Once it’s determined the battery is good the rest of the system can then be checked. Loose or corroded connections can also cause a clicking and for the car not to start.

Starter

The starter solenoid on many Ford vehicle’s is on the inner fender well, on most other vehicles the starter solenoid will be mounted on the starter. The clicking that is heard many times is the solenoid. But low-voltage either from a drained battery, bad battery or poor connections can cause this. Most of the time if the vehicle can be jump-started the starter is okay. This would also indicate that the connections to the starter are good.

Alternator

Once the vehicle is running the alternator output can be checked. If the alternator is not charging the battery, it will be drained during the process of starting the car and driving. When the alternator is checked, the voltage and amperage output can be measured. Also the diode pattern will be checked to make sure the alternator won’t drain the battery when the engine is turned off. In the past do-it-yourselfers could disconnect the battery while the vehicle is running to check the alternator, if the car kept running the alternator was good. Doing this on computerized vehicles can be harmful. If the battery is disconnected while a computerized vehicle is running the alternator output can increase sharply allowing excess voltage to spike the computer.

Battery

When purchasing a replacement battery the cold cranking amps required for the vehicle should be checked. It’s best to purchase a battery with more cold cranking amps than the minimum required. Also when purchasing a battery you should consider if you want maintenance free or not. If the battery is hard to access or has a cover then a maintenance free battery is preferred. For instance on some Chrysler Sebrings and Chevrolet Corvettes the battery is located behind an inner fender and on a Chevrolet SSR. the battery is located underneath the bed where the spare tire would normally go. If installing the battery yourself be sure to notice which side is positive and negative in case you were sold the incorrect battery.

Terminals

The terminals should be free of corrosion and should tighten up well. Sometimes especially on import vehicles the battery terminals will be very thin and can have hairline cracks causing a poor connection. Avoid forcing the battery terminals on by tapping them. The battery casing can be damaged causing a leak, if the battery acid seeps out it can cause fast corrosion. If the battery terminal bolts will not tighten, then replacing the terminals is recommended. When the connections are tight you should not be able to twist them by hand.

Honda Motor Scooter Guide

Driving a car, truck or SUV can be pricey when you factor in the cost of rising gas prices. If you are a single motorist or only use your vehicle for commuting, an alternative to consider is a Honda motor scooter. There are currently six different models to choose from and of the various designs available, one is sure to meet all of your needs. Running errands around town, seating for two, storage space, long-distance riding and engine performance are just some options to consider when thinking about the kind of scooter you would like to be riding.

The Metropolitan model from Honda offers single seating for the modern rider. This scooter is perfect for the driver looking for sharp European design while being fuel efficient. Automatic   transmission  is also a perk for those who are new to riding scooters as shifting gears may seem intimidating. A 49cc engine gives a top speed of 40 miles per hour which is plenty fast for local around-town driving or commutes that do not involve travel on highways.

Are you looking for a two-seat scooter with generous storage space and a little more engine zip than the Metropolitan? A Honda motor scooter that could be for you is the Honda Elite model. Reach speeds up to 50 miles per hour with its 108cc engine while riding comfortably with a second person seated behind you. And you do not need to worry about taking your helmet with you after reaching your destination with this model’s under seat storage feature.

Honda’s Ruckus model offers a rugged exterior as opposed to the smooth lines of the Metropolitan and Elite scooters. Automatic  transmission , a liquid-cooled engine and electric start are all features of this Honda motor scooter. Oversized tires allow for handling a bit rougher terrain while still enjoying the fuel efficiency that driving a scooter provides.

The PCX scooter offered by Honda engages a 125cc engine that can travel up to 60 miles per hour. A trunk allowing for a full size helmet and an accessory rack ensures you will have the space needed to accommodate all of the items you may be traveling with. Some highway travel is permitted with this motor scooter which may be a great option for commuters.

A sleek model that gets you from point A to point B faster and with room for two is Honda’s SH150i. This fuel-injected scooter features a 153cc engine and a Combined Braking System. A top speed of 65 miles per hour with two riders makes this scooter an ideal option for those looking for local and highway travel.

Finally, the Silver Wing ABS is the ultimate luxury scooter from the Honda line. An ample windscreen and seating for two offers comfort to all riders while the 582cc engine delivers power for those longer rides. The anti-lock braking system and automatic  transmission  offered with this Honda motor scooter model is sure to provide fast and fun transport for the motorist looking for ultimate comfort.

In-Dependence – Some Thoughts on Meta Relationships

You are not independent. You are “in-dependence.” Independence is an illusion; it does not exist, anywhere. As an individual, as a society, as a nation, we like to view ourselves are independent. Especially in the United States which was founded on the principle of independence. But, think about it, what are you not dependent upon? Who are you not dependent upon? Dependence is not a bad thing; it has earned a bad rap due to issues of “co-dependence” which refers to a dysfunctional relationship between two or more people. We like to think of independence as freedom. But, freedom is a mental concept that has become distorted to mean no responsibilities, which is a fallacy. Freedom has more to do with our capacity to make choices and decisions for which there are consequences to which we are bound. The natural world, of which we are a part, is a complex web of dependence. We use our freedom to make choices and decisions within the confines of our dependence upon the natural world, which does include Let’s take a look at some of the ways in which we are integrally dependent upon the natural world and other people.

If we consider some of our basic needs, such as food, shelter and clothing, we readily see that without the soil, the rain, the sun and a conducive atmosphere, we would have no food. And, you will certainly agree that we are dependent upon food! Shelter too is based on utilizing natural resources: wood mainly, which comes from trees, which grows in soil, which needs sunlight and rain…and a conducive atmosphere. Clothing comes from natural fibers such as cotton and silk. Or, it is made from synthetic materials which are petroleum based and again part of the natural world’s resources.

One of our more basic needs is physical safety, security and protection. These needs too are dependent upon the resources of our natural environment. Whether it is a fortress built of stone, a spear of wood, a sword of metal, a gun, a cannon, a bomb….they are all built from materials outside of our individual existence, meaning we cannot simply materialize these things from within ourselves. We can imagine tools such as these, and so many others, from within ourselves…but, we cannot materialize them without the aid of natural resources. It has been suggested that “home sapien”, the knowing animal, ought to be renamed “homo faber” the fabricating animal. All of the tools and technology which surrounds us today is a fabrication utilizing the materials available to us…and without which, we would have nothing. We are dependent!

Higher needs have to do with social interaction…belongingness and connection to others. The complex division of labor in society requires that we interact with others; systems of exchange are devised of which money is only one. We are not so much dependent upon money as we are dependent upon exchange. We could not exist in society alone as a solitary individual. We are dependent upon others, and they upon us. The complexity of our dependence can be mind boggling. Just having food to buy at the market, or gas to buy for the car, involves a vast array of people doing varying different jobs. As you sit at your computer reading this article, you are reaping the benefits of your dependence upon a system of manufacturing, production and distribution of goods that dwarfs individual efforts. We are dependent upon the collective activities of society. And, in today’s world of globalization, we are fast becoming aware of our dependence upon the global marketplace, of which we are all a part.

Beyond our needs for belonging and connection with others, we have needs for knowledge. And, here again, we are dependent upon others…specifically, the mind of others, the mind of humanity, if you will. In that regard, we are dependent upon our ancestors, our history…our collective history. Knowledge grows, expands and becomes increasingly complex. We become dependent upon systems of data as well as the storage and   transmission  of that data. No one person can do this alone. And, in fact, any one person, you for example, is really composed of millions of component parts all intricately connected and dependent upon each other. The cells and organs of the body, the nervous system and it’s subsidiary systems of circulation, respiration, digestion, elimination, immunity….Where is there any independence?

We need a Declaration of Dependence. We need an awareness of systems and how they interact for it is within systems that we exist and it is within systems where dependence is an absolutely necessary functionality. We need a recognition and acknowledgment of Complexity. Complexity Theory states that “Complex Systems is a new approach to science that studies how relationships between parts give rise to the collective behaviors of a system and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment.” (Wikipedia).

As an individual, we interact within systems; and the way we do that is through communication. Communication is a means of relationship and exchange, it is a means of understanding and knowledge. In a system of dependence, communication is critically important for without accurate and effective communication we would not be able to function. Our body is a striking example of complex communication in action. Just the mere act of walking requires sophisticated communication between cells, nerves, ligaments and muscles ranging from the tips of our toes to our eyes. Without that communication, we would easily and quickly fumble. Communication is THE critical ingredient in healthy dependence.

So, the next time you hear somebody expounding their independence, think about the complex systems upon which they are dependent to even vocalize their illusory perception and belief of their own independence. In fact, when you hear yourself falling into this trap…catch yourself and recall the truth: we are all in-dependence.

2 Major Factors Affect Learning Outcomes

It’s been public knowledge that the quality of our education around the world has been very low due to many reasons that are never heeded by our world education experts including Indonesia one of the biggest world countries whose schools and universities outnumber other world countries’ but their quality has not improved.

From my observation, interviews, teaching and lecturing at schools, colleges and universities in Indonesia, there are many factors which I think are very important to consider by our world educators in order to improve the quality of our education. There are at least 3 factors that affect the success or failure of our education: internal, external and instrumental factors. I believe that if we pay particular attention to these three factors, the quality of our education will better in terms of quality in our education.

The first factor is internal factor which refers to the learners who are learning. It includes (a) their individual interest in learning, (b) learning motivation implanted in the learners who are learning with other learners who have the same interest. This learning motivation is also influenced by several factors, that is learners’ learning ability, conditions, environmental conditions, dynamic elements in learning, and efforts of their teachers in teaching the learners in addition to other circumstances such as the learners’ physical condition, and their psychological state, their attention, attitude and learning habits, toughness in learning, social and economic stance as well as cognitive ability.

The second factor is called the external factor which is not separable from the first factor that guarantees learning outcome. This factor includes social environment where the learners, stakeholders I mean the schools or universities and the teachers and lecturers are, and those are present with the learners. The presence of other people at the time of learning should often be in line with the purposes of the learners’ activities that they should not interfere or prevent them from learning, in other words the presence of the people around the learners should be supporting their learning experience and activities, and the environment such as peers, classmates from the same and different classes, school administration/management, their teachers and other employees of the school as well as the headmasters very much influence the learning process to account for learning outcomes. Another important thing which is also related to the success of learning is the curriculum, the course structure, and the infrastructure available as means or media of learning as well as teachers as designers of learning and those are surely guaranteed for learning outcomes supported by devices or tools that are ready at hand that have to be well designed in such a way that they will meet the requirements of the learning activities.

In conclusion, those are the two very important factors which account for the success of learning we as world educators and education stakeholders should pay attention to in order to guarantee success in our world education.