IPv4 Vs IPv6 (Advantages and Disadvantages)

We can see the rapid growth of internet users in last few years and this increase also create challenges for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. Day by day infrastructure of internet is expanding and we can even enjoy the service of internet in villages and remote areas. Increased of usage also increase online devices. In start internet protocol addressing (a specific IP addressing for each online entity) was designed on 32 bit and this scheme IP version called IPv4.IPv4 addressing is like 203.128.076.001. decimal is used to make the IPv4 addresses more palatable for humans and a 32-bit address becomes 4 decimal numbers separated by the period (.) character. If we calculate these decimal values and we can get the total number of devices can be participate on this protocol (256x256x256x256) = allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses. It is about 4 billion of addresses and in early days of internet no one can think, 4 billion slot will be full. here we shall discus some disadvantages of IPv4 as we have seen addressing capability problem and after that we shall go through the solution which will replace IPv4 and addressing structure of the new addressing scheme. we shall go through some disadvantages of IPv4 and new features of IPv6.

Rapid Growth of the Internet and the Exhaustion of the IPv4 Addressing

IPv4 allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses which is about 4 billion and IP allocation limits the public IP addresses to a few hundred million. Cause of this limitation companies using NAT (Network Address Translator) to map single public IP to multiple private IP addresses.

IPv4 Security at IP Level

When we communicate at public medium we need to encrypt data to maintain security and privacy. After a passage of time we have now security for IPv4 packets. This security knows as internet protocol security or IPSec but this is an optional for IPv4.

Internet Backbone Maintaining Large Routing Tables

In IPv4 network IDs allocation is very critical and currently more than 87000 routes in the routing tables of internet backbone routers today. The routing infrastructure is based on flat and hierarchical routing.

Quality of Service Concern in IPv4

Now a days internet users are not only limited with browsing and searching data. Current users are well aware of text and voice and video chat and video conferences and online video libraries. This kind of communication need real time data transfer for quality of service. Normally for these kind of services we use UDP (User Data-gram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and, over time, has been redefined and locally interpreted. Additionally, payload identification that uses a TCP or UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.

IPv6

As we can see we have some basic problems in practice of IPv4 now we will check some new features of IPv6. here I like to describe the some of basic features of IPv6. Deployment of IPv6 is a big challenge for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. It is difficult but not impossible. We can see benefits of IPv6 here. Biggest upgrade jump from IPv4 32 bit to IPv6 128 bit.

IPv6 Header Format

New header is designed to minimize header overhead. by moving both nonessential and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers and that generates efficiency. IPv6 is 4 time larger than IPv4 and its header size is twice than older version.

IPv6 Large Addressing Space

In IPv6 source and destination addresses is based on 128 bit. 128 bit addressing can produce over 3.4 x 1038 possible combinations. Currently we can say this is enough but who know about future may be it also face same problem like IPv4 after some decades. 128 bit addressing allow us multiple levels of sub-netting and address allocation. So we can say that we have plenty of address for use in future.

Addressing and Routing Infrastructure Efficiency in IPv6

IPv6 designed to create an efficient, hierarchical, and summarize able routing infrastructure that is based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet Service Providers. It reduce the size of routing table of backbone routers. Which is can cause of efficient internet experience.

Security features is now built-in

IPv6 has been design to support IPsec (AH and ESP header support required) also support mobility version Mobile IPv6. IPSec based on two types of extension headers and a protocol to negotiate security settings. The Authentication header (AH) provides data integrity, data authentication, and replay protection for the entire IPv6 packet. It is better form developers who built-in security features in development of IPv6 rather we bolt on later.

Quality of Service (QoS) of IPv6

As we have already seen about the UDP and TCP protocols for streaming and other multimedia services on internet. Cause the usage of these services are increasing day by day IPv6 have a flow level field in its header which make better and special handling for packets from source to destination. Data traffic is identified in the IPv6 header, support for QoS can be achieved even when the packet payload is encrypted with IPSec and ESP.

An Aion Primer – Basic Aion Guide

The massively multiplayer online RPG known as Aion (full name: “Aion: Tower Of Eternity”) is NCSoft’s latest foray into the MMORPG genre. So, what’s Aion all about and what makes it different from the myriad of other popular MMO games on the market now? This article aims to be your guide to the world of Aion, to give you a primer on the basics of how Aion works and what you can expect from the game.

The game takes place in two separate “worlds”, Elysea and Asmodae, inhabited by the Elyos and Asmodians, respectively. Elysea is bright and cheerful, whereas Asmodae is more dark and sinister. Players begin the game as humans in whichever world they choose. Players gain experience by completing quests and defeating enemies, which they then use to “level up” their characters. Once characters reach the required level, they become winged immortals known as “Daevas”. Once a character has become a Daeva, they travel to the capital city of whichever world they inhabit, to begin their new lives. Features

Character Creation & Customization

An important feature in any RPG, Aion features a robust character creation and customization system. This system allows players to fine-tune the height, weight and scale of various body parts. A variety of hair styles, skin colors, facial textures and voices are available to choose from. Players can go really in-depth with their character’s detailing, by adjusting eye shape/color, nose shape, ear size/shape, and tattoos for the character’s face and/or body. Aion also features the ability to dye a character’s equipment to change its color, and the ability to interchange graphics between weapons and armor that the characters have in their inventory (though this graphic swapping must be done between items of the same type).

Skill Chains

Many RPGs allow characters to gain and improve new skills as they progress. Aion introduces a subtle twist to this game mechanic with “Skill Chains”. With “Skill Chains”, skill upgrades may only be performed in a certain order (hence the term “chain”).

Classes

There are four “primary” classes: Warrior, Mage, Scout, or Priest. Once characters reach level 9, the player can then choose from two “specialized” classes related to their original “primary” class. Warriors can become either a “Templar” or “Gladiator”. Likewise, Mages can become either a “Sorcerer” or “Spirit Master”, Scouts can be either “Assassin” or “Ranger”, and Priests can become either a “Cleric” or a “Chanter”. Professions

On top of your character classes, there are six “crafting” professions (Alchemy, Cooking, Tailoring, Handicrafting, Weaponsmithing, and Armorsmithing) and two “extracting” professions. The extracting professions are learned automatically by each player, but the crafting professions must be learned manually. A single character is able to learn ALL of the crafting professions, but only master two. Becoming a “master” of a profession gives the player a fancy title and a boost to his or her stats.

Grouping

Players can join together to form a “group”. Groups can accommodate up to six players. Certain parts of Aion are designed for group play, and in some areas a group is required for entrance. Building on the group mechanic, in Aion up to four groups may form what is known as an “alliance” when greater numbers are needed. However, being a part of an alliance can limit your rewards from smaller quests intended for single or group play.

PvPvE system

The “Abyss” is a PvP area physically located between the two game worlds. Once characters reach higher levels, much of the game of Aion revolves around PvP encounters in this area. The Abyss features strongholds which can be controlled by “Legions” (Aion for “guild”). Players battle it out to gain and keep control of these various strongholds. Again, Aion introduces another twist with siege weapons players can obtain from raids, and use in these battles. Control of a stronghold means income from taxes, and players get perks from stores and NPCs. Battling it out with your fellow players in the Abyss will get you “Abyss Points”. These points are used to rank you among the rest of the Aion players out there. Why does this matter? Well, higher ranks unlock visual upgrades to your characters wings, and you can use your Abyss points to purchase high-end armor and weapons.

The First Steps Towards Becoming A Working Actor

So your bags are packed and your next destination is Hollywood to pursue your life long dream of becoming a movie star. No one will say its an easy road to take, so hats off to you for going through with this journey. This article will save you a lot of time in preparation when you make it there. The first thing you need to do is land an agent. Listed below are the four main things you need to have/do in order to get that agent.

ACTING CLASSES

Before an actor becomes an actor, they are put in training. The same way a boxer conditions his or her body to become a better fighter, an actor trains through acting classes, to hone his or her craft.

Acting classes are the basics, where you start before anything else if your desire is to become an actor. You develop your skills using various techniques to mentally train your mind to transform yourself as a person saying words written on paper, into a person living in a moment of truth. There is no single method or technique that is correct; it’s all about finding the approach that works for you. Again, just like every boxer has a unique style, every actor brings something different to the table. Whether you identify with Sanford Meisner, Constantin Stanislavski, Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, or somebody entirely different, a great acting program will offer one or a combination of the techniques that work for you.

HEADSHOTS

The first thing an agent or casting director look at (whether finding new talent or filling a role) is a headshot.

A headshot is an accurate picture of you, representing your physical attributes. A headshot photo is often of one’s face, but just as fashion trends come and go, headshot framing can be trendy as well. Another great reason to have a current photo, is so that you don’t seem outdated in terms of style, color, and formatting. A person’s entire body can be used in a headshot when submitting to a modeling agency.

A “look” is an actor’s demeanor in a photo. If an actor wishes to audition primarily for comedic roles, the photographer will direct him into a playful mood, capturing images of the actor smiling, and perhaps looking a bit goofy. For action roles, the demeanor could be more intense and serious. This is not necessarily a rule, but rather a way of creating an advantage for those going after specific roles.

When just beginning a career, it is crucial to have a variety of photos to demonstrate versatility and to open up as many doors as possible. Don’t pigeon-hole yourself right away, but at the same time, be honest with yourself. Know what you can and can’t do as an actor and get pictures that correlate with your repertoire of skills.

At the very least, an actor just starting out needs a commercial shot (generally a smiley picture used for commercial auditions) and a theatrical shot (generally more serious, used for film and television auditions).

ACTING RESUME

An actor’s resume displays the work they have done. A rule of thumb in the industry is to have your resume stapled at the corners and behind your headshot, making a clean attachment for casting directors and agents who sift through hundreds of headshots, looking for that person with the right look for a particular role. Although almost all submissions are digital these days, having hard copies of your picture and resume is still expected.

Your resume should consist of only the most the basic info: your name and contact information (either personal phone number and/or email address, or that of your agent/manager). If you belong to SAG-AFTRA you should indicate that as well. Putting your height, weight, and hair/eye color used to be standard, but has begun to phase out.

List the most prominent productions you have been involved in, and the details should be broken down into different headings: Film & TV, Theater and New Media (web series). Once your credits begin to grow, the heading of Film and TV can be broken up into two categories. Next you should list your training. Acting classes, theatre, voice over training, etc.

Lastly, the most commonly overlooked section of a resume: Special Skills. Here is where you can brag about hidden talents you have, or cash in on ordinary talents. List the sports you play, the games you know, the accents you can do, the languages you speak, etc… You’d be surprised how many actors can book a role simply because they know how to hula hoop or, believe it or not, drive a manual transmission. You can also use this section to be creative and write something that will stand out and make you memorable. If you can freestyle rap, for example, that’s a great way to grab attention on a resume, just be prepared to show it off if and when you’re asked about it. DO NOT LIE on you Special Skills section. It will only hurt you in the long run.

Now here’s the catch 22. You need an agent to get work, but you can’t get work without an agent. So how do you get work without an agent to start? I’ve been in this predicament, and had an agent call me and tell me this exact bit of information.

“A good agent won’t represent somebody who doesn’t have an acting background, even if you found one that did, you don’t want that type of agent representing you. You need to focus on building your resume. Get enrolled in some acting classes, and for work, try looking into either Craigslist to get involved in any student films, or lacasting.com and do some extra work. All of this will help build your resume and show you are serious about acting.”

DEMO REEL

After you feel you’ve taken enough acting classes, had your headshots taken, it’s time to start looking for representation. It’s very difficult getting represented by an agent with just your headshots, resume and acting training. You need a video montage of you showing off your acting chops. This where a demo reel comes in handy.

A demo reel is a collection of scenes edited together to showcase the ability of an actor. Demo reels are also made for directors, cinematographers and editors as well. For an actor, a demo reel can be used to show their genre range, mixing in various works they have done from dramatic to comedic. They can also be tailored to represent an actor in one complete genre, such as an all action genre reel. This usually comes only after the actor has enough credits to warrant separate reels.

A good demo reel is usually between three to five minutes in length and displays anywhere from six to eight scenes. Sizzle reels, are a trimmed down version of a demo reel, usually running no more than one minute in length with music overlaying the edited footage giving a “teaser” type effect. Sizzle reels are becoming quite popular, as they are quick and stylish. It is good to have both, as every agent has their own reservation for what they want submitted.

The biggest mistake people make in getting their demo reel made is that they over do it. Often times I’ve seen demo reels consisting of scenes of a person screaming at the top of their lungs or crying, or holding a gun and shooting someone. A great demo reel should be 2 things, subtle and entertaining. Keep that in mind. And always lead with your best stuff, either your most impressive credit, or the clip(s) that showcase you the best. Remember, the person watching the reel doesn’t love you as much as you might love yourself, and isn’t likely to watch the entire thing, no matter how short it is.

TIME TO GET AN AGENT

At the end of it all, you’ve got enough acting classes under your belt, you have a great new headshot, your resume is substantial and growing, and you have a reel that represents you well, it is now time for you to find an agent. You can check out our updated Agent list. We hope this article has been a good source of information to you. Check out our site for other articles related to the world of acting. Good luck on your journey, looking forward to seeing you on the silver screen!

Marine VHF Radio

Types of VHF sets:

Non-DSC sets

Non-DSC VHF sets on yachts and motorboats will still continue to work, will still be legal to use and certificate holders do not need to do a conversion course until they choose to upgrade. After 2005 Coastguards will cease to monitor Channel 16 in the way that they do now, that is with a dedicated officer on headset watch 24 hours a day, but they will continue to have a loudspeaker watch on channel 16 in the operations room. Increasingly the boat without VHF DSC radio will be at a disadvantage.

A transportable set is an invaluable second radio for use in an emergency when it can be taken into a life raft or used on deck to communicate in a rescue situation. It is useful for safety reasons in a tender when going ashore or in a safety boat when organising dinghy sailing events. A portable set is a good buy for non-boat owners who charter or who go afloat occasionally. They have a limited range but do require licensing and certification. Portable sets with a very limited DSC facility are available. They are intended as an addition to a full VHF DSC set, not as a substitute. Note that the portable set covered by a ship’s radio licence can only be used on the vessel covered by the licence or by its tender(s). It is illegal to use the portable ashore.

VHF DSC radio sets

From 2001 all new non-portable radios sold must be VHF-DSC or be capable of being converted to DSC by the addition of an extra ‘black box’. These are called DSC Controllers. It will provide the digital selective calling (DSC) facility which is the special feature of the new type of set. What this does is to send, on channel 70, a burst of digital signals in a code to ‘call up’ another DSC set. This call can be directed at an individual, using their MMSI, a group of boats or ‘all stations’ in an emergency. Once the link has been established by the digital ‘call’, normal voice   transmission  will be used. The DSC is essentially a new method of establishing communications, more reliably than was possible before. The digital signals are of high radio quality and rapid, the alert taking just 0.5 seconds. It can be used in both routine and distress situations.

There are different classes of controller with varying levels of capability for use in different types of vessel.

The Class D controller is the one designed for use with VHF on yachts and motorboats who make passages within VHF range of the coast. Fitting one of these is not compulsory on private boats. On small boats used at sea commercially, sea school boats for example, it may become a requirement. This will be to the great advantage of their students who will be able to see the sets in use and appreciate their advantages.

Other controllers for VHF DSC are available to meet the requirements of ships. These include Class A and B Controllers, which have enhanced capabilities.

What is the range of the set?

Those sailing across an ocean, or even the Bay of Biscay, need radios that transmit over vast distances. Licensing arrangements are different too.

The range of  transmission  of VHF radio telephones is limited by a number of factors. The height of the aerial is very significant as the propagation of the radio waves is only slightly more than ‘line of sight’. This includes the aerial height of both the transmitting and the receiving station.

When talking from yacht to yacht expect a range of 10 to l5 miles with aerials fitted at the tops of the masts. Those commonly fitted to yachts are known as ‘unity gain’ aerials. They are made of thin wire and often have wind instruments attached. They are recommended because, although the range is not as good as the taller rigid aerials used on motorboats, they cope better with the heeling effect often experienced on yachts! The better range of a ‘high gain’ motor cruiser aerial is only achieved if it is mounted vertically.

It should be possible to talk to a Coastguard station from 30 to 40 miles offshore because of the height of their aerial.

Transmitting range is also affected by the transmitting power of the set. The maximum power allowed is 25 watts. There is also a low power setting, which reduces the transmitting power to 1 watt. This should be used for all short range routine communications. You might think that it is always a good idea to broadcast your signal as far as possible. This it not so. Remember that each channel can only be used for one  transmission  at a time. Powerful signals cause more inference to other radio users. If you are calling another craft nearby or a marina, use low power. Try to use low power for all routine communications. The use of low power does not change the receiving range of the set.

A portable VHF set has yet another type of aerial. This is flexible and will operate at a wider range of angles. The low aerial height and a maximum power output of 5 watts reduces the range of  transmission  of these sets. Between portable radios the range can be up to 5 miles, increasing to 10 miles to a Coastguard station, if there is no land in the way! Remember, with portable radios there is always the risk that the battery will go flat.

The information about ranges of  transmissions  is for average conditions and good circumstances. Ranges can be influenced by:

o Atmospheric conditions, especially high pressure, can increase the range and cause interference from distant stations.

o Land. Boats operating near land may have poor reception with signals being blocked by hills or buildings.

o Incorrect installation of the aerial, or damage to the coaxial cable connecting the aerial to the set, can give poor reception.

o The proximity of other electronic equipment can cause interference.

For these reasons it is best to have the fitting done, or at least checked, by a professional electronics engineer.

A portable radio has a range of 5 miles to another portable, 10 miles to a Coastguard Station.

All distress calls should be transmitted on high power.

Many yachts carry emergency VHF aerials in case of dismasting, which is a very good idea, but failure of the electrical supply is a more frequent problem! The emergency aerial has a plug attached to connect it to the back of the set. For maximum range, situate the aerial as high as possible, but realistically expect a greatly reduced range. When the mast is lost, many people are surprised to hear the radio apparently still working. This is because the co-axial cable is acting as an aerial over a short range, but transmitting without an aerial will damage the set permanently.

A portable radio could be useful under these circumstances!

Easy Songs To Play On Guitar With 4 Simple Open Chords

Learning Chords

For most beginners at guitar playing, the first goal is to learn some easy songs to play on the guitar. And one of the main challenges here is learning all the guitar chords needed in order to be able to play those songs.

And that’s not always an easy thing to accomplish. Many songs uses chords that seem to have been invented for no other reason than to make it impossible to play. No wonder you give up on those songs. They have to wait until you get better at guitar playing.

G-Em-C-D

The Chord progression G-Em-C-D is a common (big understatement!) sequence all over the world, in all sorts of music styles. You can of course transpose to other chords, like C-Am-F-G or D-Bm-G-A and so on. Another way to “transpose” a song that not fits your voice is to use a capo at any fret you like.

I have compiled a little list of songs that I found that uses these chords. Many of them uses the progression all the way through the entire song, others are played with variations. And a few of them uses other chords as well.

The List

So here it is, my small gift to those of you who can’t find easy songs to play on guitar.

Here are the chords again, with two additional variations.

(C-Am-F-G), (G-Em-C-D), (D-Bm-G-A)

Stand by Me – Ben E. King

Heart and Soul – Hoagy Carmichael

The Thin Ice – Pink Floyd

Earth Angel – The Penguins (in family guy, back to the future etc.)

Donna – Ritchie Valens

Duke of Earl – Gene Chandler

Every Breath You Take – The Police

The Living Daylights – a-Ha

Last Kiss

Those Magic Changes and Beauty School Dropout – from Grease

Leader of the Pack

You Send Me

Blue Moon – Chris Isaak

Breaking Up Is Hard To Do – The Carpenters

Bubble Goose – Wyclef Jean

Teenager in Love – Dion & The Belmonts(?)

Fly On The Wings Of Love – The Olsen Brothers

Bus Station – Tom Russell

Heart Of Gold – Neil young

Stand By Me – Ben E King

Beautiful Girls – Sean Kingston

I’ve just seen a face – The Beatles

Last Kiss – Pearl Jam

Bleeding Love – Leona Lewis (I think?)

Single Ladies – Beyonce

Baby – Justin Bieber

Mary’s Song- Taylor Swift

Jump then Fall- Taylor Swift

Wrapped in your Arms- Fireflight

This magic moment

Up on the roof- The Drifters

Wonderful world – Herman Hermits

Lovers moon – Glenn Frye – My new favorite.

She will be loved – Maroon 5

His Latest Flame – Elvis.

I Only Want To Be With You – Dusty Springfield.

End Of The Line – Traveling Wilburys.

Puff The Magic Dragon – Peter, Paul and Mary

Kumbayah

Where Have All The Flowers Gone? – Pete Seeger

Look at the first song in this list. In all its simplicity “Stand By Me” is a fantastic song, and it has travelled with me through all these years. And it’s a very easy song to play on guitar.

If you like that song I’ll show you a very special version of it, at my website.

A Few Fantastic Health Benefits of Yoga

There are so many of us who inevitably end up associating yoga with its “physical” attributes. In fact, they shy away from it simply thinking that yoga is strictly meant for the physically fit or the athletic ones. A highly erroneous notion. The concept is far from truth-very far! Yes, it’s a physical exercise. No doubt about it. However, one needs to understand that this ancient practice entails much more than just “body”- yogis aim for that perfect realm of stability where the mind, body and spirit work in cohesion. Today, we will be primarily discussing the health benefits of yoga but not before clearly pointing out that you can practice it even if you are not athletic! Here’s what you need to find out about the health benefits of yoga. They are simply fantastic.

It can bolster the function of lungs

Deep purposeful breathing is a part of the yogic experience. Such exercises, as per studies, can actually improve the functioning of lungs. With a better-functioning pair of lungs you can expect to perform a lot of activities better – like running or walking long distances without getting tired.

Exercises bolster the condition of your heart as well

Patients with high blood pressure and cholesterol can benefit a lot from yogic exercises. Studies, for instance, have shown that individuals practicing yoga on a regular basis have lower blood cholesterol levels and reduced risks of blood cholesterol level. What more? The efficaciousness of the breathing exercises is now even harnessed by doctors to address heart ailments. Medical practitioners duly acknowledge the usefulness of the right breathing techniques and exercises when it comes to reversing symptoms of several stress induced diseases or heart ailments.

These exercises help you master the right postures

The importance of sitting, working and walking in the right posture is mostly undermined by us. We often fail to identify the evils of wrong postures. For instance, we just fail to realize that wrong postures can actually give birth to a number of problems including neck pain, shoulder pain and so much more.

Practicing yoga can help you build stronger muscles so that they can support the right postures. Yogic exercises also add flexibility to your body thereby eliminating muscle tension so that you are able to walk and sit with your shoulders straight. You can sit with your stomach tucked in as well.

Yoga can also help you fight depression

Meditation or relaxation exercises can help you get out of depressive thoughts as well. For many depressed people, when every measure fails, yoga turns out to be the answer.

So, what exactly are you waiting for? It doesn’t matter how old you are or how athletic (or not) you are, you can always trust the therapeutic benefits of yoga in a major way. Find a credentialed instructor and get going! Make sure you are exploring more about these exercises and their benefits by reading up about the same. There is no dearth of resources to help you there. Make sure you’re keeping these points in view.

Motorcycle Gas Mileage

With insane gas prices, people are looking at motorcycle gas mileage. More people are considering motorcycles to reduce their gas costs. I’ve gotten over 50mpg on my 2004 Road King Custom, which has the five speed   transmission . The new six speed will no doubt give you better mileage.

As you can see by the list below, Harley-Davidson motorcycles get great gas mileage ranging from around 53mpg for the big Screamin Eagle Ultra Classic and the Screamin Eagle DYNA, both with the 110 cubic inch engine to around 60mpg for the 883 Sportster.

If you’re considering a motorcycle to lower your gas costs, keep in mind the type of riding your going to be doing. If you’re thinking about an 883 Sportster to commute to and from work, remember the types of roads you’ll be traveling on. The Sporster gets great gas mileage but I would not want to spend a lot of time on the highway with it. If you are going to be doing a lot of highway riding, I would consider something bigger. Either way, you’ll be saving money on gas and having fun doing it. Here is a mileage estimate list for Harley motorcycles.

Sportster 883 models: 60 HWY/45 CITY

Sportster 1220 models: 57 HWY/42 CITY

DYNA Super Glide: 54 HWY/35 CITY

DYNA Super Glide Custom: 53 HWY/34 CITY

DYNA Street Bob: 54 HWY/35 CITY

DYNA Fat Bob: 53 HWY/34 CITY

DYNA Low Rider: 53 HWY/34CITY

DYNA Wide Glide 105Th Anniversary: 53 HWY/34 CITY

Screamin Eagle DYNA: 53 HWY/36 CITY

VRSV V-Rod: 42 HWY/34 CITY

Night Train Softail: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Softail Custom: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Fat Boy: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Rocker,Rocker C: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Softail Deluxe: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Heritage Softail Classic: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Electra Glide Standard: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Road King, Road King Classic, Road Glide, Street Glide: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Electra Glide Classic: 54 HWY/35 CITY

Screamin Eagle Road King: 53.5 HWY/37.7 CITY

Screamin Eagle Ultra Classic: 53 HWY/36 CITY

Energy Healing and the Sacred Art of Transmission

In a sense, we are all transmitting, or broadcasting energy all of the time via our thoughts, feelings and beliefs, as everything is energy and has frequency. Yet I wanted to go deeper here and share with you what I know to be possible, which I am referring to as the “sacred art of transmission” as it is a much more powerful, precise and rare spiritual and healing gift.

It is the ability to transmit spiritual, healing, and intuitive awakenings through look, touch, voice, or even mere presence. It has been over twenty years, but I will never forget my earliest memories of energy transmissions. While some happened through my spiritual teachers, many of them occurred during Reiki healing sessions, and then in teaching and attuning others to this awesome healing art.

Reiki Energy Healing Attunements are Transmissions

After I met my first spiritual teacher, I decided to take a Reiki workshop even though I had never experienced it myself. I was just so curious and my colleague had told me of her experience awhile back, but at that time I was not open, as I had no mental “box” to put it in and kind of shelved the whole concept.

I am so grateful I did. Because I noticed that while there were many great and wise people I knew who were meditating also with the same Master, and most for much longer than me, it was not common for anyone but the energy healers to expect to be able to transmit this potent energy and spiritual space. It was clearly a level of empowerment that I came to appreciate only much later. And it had to do with owning the ability to transmit energy, not just to sit in the energy.

In Reiki Level 1 there are 4 initiatory attunements, which I couldn’t possibly comprehend at that time. Reiki attunements are initiations or transmissions of energy that open the healing channels or energy pathways within everyone.

Yet I now come to realize that the Reiki Master is passing down the ability to awaken or open the healing channels that lie dormant within us all, through these specific attunements. In this instance, everyone else in class was tingling, but I feared I was a Reiki “dud” when we began to practice on each other, and everyone else’s hands were tingling, and I got nada, bupkis.

Until we got to the final two attunements. And something DEFINITELY happened. I actually heard and felt a spirit man initiating me, in addition to the woman teaching the class. When I asked who it was, I got that it was the founder, Dr. Mikao Usui, himself. I asked if he did all of the attunements with her, and she looked stunned. I can only guess that was not everyone’s experience.

Then it began happening: not from me but through me…

I have taught students, who have supposedly already taken Reiki classes with another teacher, and they were very surprised that they felt such tangible energy flow, or experienced such deep meditation states, expansion, and 3rd eye intuitive openings. I was surprised that they didn’t experience that with other teachers. It pains me, but there seem to be many people now teaching a much diluted version of what I received.

It is way more than just intention. It is more like you begin to embody the universal life energy. I now have two decades of validation that direct transmission is happening through me, and not just in Reiki attunements or private sessions. It begins to flow through you like water… and not just via the hands. One Reiki student was walking with me and we stopped at a small waterfall flowing into a pond. She gasped, and said that something was coming out of my eyes; a light, and it felt just like a healing session.

Another time, I met with a new neighbor and she was describing her chronic back pain. I felt deep compassion for her and wanted to help in some way, but it felt too early in the conversation to suggest a Reiki session. But she immediately felt relief, and asked “are you doing that thing you do, cuz my back feels better and better.”

Over time, the knowing what is possible, turns to probable. Now, with very little effort on my part I can align and focus my eyes, my feet, my heart, my thoughts and healing happens, calm serene stillness descends, light radiates. I used to be shy about stating these things, feeling like it was ego. But now I know I must tell you all what is possible for you, just as it became possible for me. I see my students stepping into this mind-blowing reality that they, too can transmit healing energy. There is nothing that delights me more!

How to Program a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller

Do you have a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller that you are not familiar with but you need to program it NOW! Following is a quick set of instructions I have put together to help you get started programming a Siemens S7-300 PLC.

After loading the programming software and connecting a Siemens MPI cable between your programming computer and the PLC, open SIMATIC Manager by clicking the icon on the desktop. The STEP 7 Wizard: “New Project” window will open. It is easier to use the Wizard to setup communications with your PLC, but I chose to take the scenic route. I figured I would learn more this way. So, close the STEP 7 Wizard window by clicking Cancel. If there are any other windows or projects open, close them. We want to start with a totally new program.

Create a new project by clicking the new project button on the toolbar in the upper left corner of your screen.

The New Project window opens. Here you will see any existing programs located on your computer. Near the bottom of the window, you will see the Name: input form. Type whatever you want to name your new project and click OK.

A new window will open showing the name of your project at the top. You will also see your project in the window on the left hand side of the screen at the top. Right click your project and choose “Insert New Object”. Choose the device you will be programming. We will be using the SIMATIC 300 Station so choose that selection.

You will now see SIMATIC 300 appear in the right window of your screen. It should be highlighted blue. Click anywhere in the window to make the blue go away. Double click SIMATIC 300 and it will move to the left window and “Hardware” will appear in the right window.

Double click “Hardware” and two (maybe three) new windows will open. On the left will be SIMATIC 300 – (the name of your project). The window on the right will be the catalog of parts.

Look in the right window, the parts catalog, and click the plus sign beside SIMATIC 300.

Click the plus sign beside RACK – 300. Click and drag the Rail onto the left window. You will now see the Slots window appear. This is where we will place our PLC components.

We will first choose our CPU. Looking at the parts catalog, in the SIMATIC 300 tree, choose the CPU that you are using. We are using the CPU – 300 so click the plus sign beside that choice.

Now look at the front top left of your PLC. This is where you will find the PLC model. I will use CPU313C-2 DP as an example since this is the model PLC that I use.

Find this CPU in your parts catalog and click the plus sign. You will now see some part numbers.

Look back at your PLC. Locate the door covering the MPI port. This will be the bottom left side of the PLC. At the bottom of the door you will find the part number. The part number for the PLC I am using as an example is 313-6CF03-0AB0.

Find this part number in the parts catalog. You will notice this is another folder. Open it and you will see V2.0 and V2.6. Look back at the PLC, open the door covering the MPI port, and right above the MPI port you will see V2.6.3.

Go back to the parts catalog and click V2.6. Notice how a slot in the left hand window will highlight green. I believe it will be slot #2. (Slot #1 is reserved for power supplies.) This is where you will drag and drop your CPU. (Notice the software will not let you put the CPU in any other slot but slot #2.)

When you release the mouse button over slot #2, a new window will open, “Properties – PROFIBUS interface”. Click new, a new window opens, click Ok, and then click OK again. We are not setting up a network at this time.

You will now see your CPU and associated hardware listed.

Double click in the Slot that list your DI16/DO16 (Digital Input/Digital Output).

A window with three tabs will open. The first tab will be General, the second tab will be Addresses and the third tab will be Inputs.

Open the tab “Addresses”. We need to change the default addresses. Do this by unchecking the System Default button and changing 124 (or whatever address you have) to 0. Do this for both the Inputs and Outputs.

We now need to change the Node Address. Go back to the window where you double clicked DI16/DO16 and double click in Slot 2, the CPU 313-2DP slot.

The Properties – CPU 313C-2DP window will open.

Look down the window a little over half way and find the Interface area and click on Properties. Another window, “Properties – MPI interface CPU 313-2DP” will open.

Change the address to meet your specific criteria. I know that my laptop, which I am using to program my PLC, is always addressed as 1 and my target PLC is usually addressed as 2. You will probably be the same.

Now click MPI(1) and click OK. Click OK again to close the Properties window.

Save and Compile by clicking the icon located on the left of the toolbar.

Download the hardware configuration to the PLC by clicking the download icon located on the toolbar.

A window titled “Select Target Module” should open. Click OK.

Another window titled “Select Node Address” will open. You should see listed your node address for the PLC you are working with as you configured it in a previous step. If not, click view and click on whatever node address appears and click OK.

Switch back to SIMATIC manager (by clicking the tab on the taskbar).

Click on Options. Choose Set PG/PC Interface. Choose PC Adapter (Auto).

Click Properties. A new window will open, displaying either Automatic Bus Profile Detection or Local Connection. Click Local Connection and choose USB. Now choose Automatic Bus Profile Detection and change the address to 30. You can check your connection now by clicking Start Network Detection. If a new window opens displaying Network Type = MPI, Transmission Rate = 187.5kbps, you have established communications with your S7-300. Click Close. Click OK. Click OK.

It is now time to start programming. Looking at the SIMATIC Manager window, click the plus sign located beside SIMATIC 300(1), click the plus sign beside CPU 313C-2DP, click the plus sign beside S7 Program(1). Now click on Blocks and you will see System data and OB1 appear in the right window on your screen.

Double click on OB1 and a new window will open named Properties – Organization Block

Here you can choose how you want to program, in LAD (ladder), STL (statement list), or FBD (function block diagram). Choose which you want to use and click OK.

Double click OB1 again and the LAD/STL/FBD programming window will open.

You can now start programming.

I have these same instructions with pictures on my website at http://www.saturdayafternoonhobbies.com